Nature or Characteristics of Management – Class 12 – Chapter 1
Nature or Characteristics of Management: Management is an activity concerned with guiding human and physical resources such that organizational goals can be achieved.
Nature or Characteristics of Management can be highlighted as:
(i) Management is goal-oriented: Management is not an end in itself. It is a means to achieve certain goals. Management has no justification to exist without goals. Management goals are called
group goals or organisational goals. The basic goal of management is to ensure efficiency and economy in the utilisation of human, physical and financial resources. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the established goals one achieved. Thus, management is purposefull.
(ii) Management is universal: Management is an essential element of every organised activity irrespective of the size or type of activity. Wherever two or more persons are engaged in working for a common goal, management is necessary. All types of organisations, e.g., family, club, university, government, army, cricket team or business, require management. Thus, management is a pervasive activity. The fundamental principles of management are applicable in all areas of organised effort. Managers at all levels perform the same basic functions.
(iii) Management is an Integrative Force: The essence of management lies in the coordination of individual efforts in to a team. Management reconciles the individual goals with organisational goals. As unifying force, management creates a whole that is more than the sum of individual parts. It integrates human and other resources.
(iv) Management is a Social Process: Management is done by people, through people and for people. It is a social process because it is concerned with interpersonal relations. Human factor is the most important element in management. According to Appley, “Management is the development of people not the direction of things.
(v) Management is multidisciplinary: Management has to deal with human behaviour under dynamic conditions. Therefore, it depends upon wide knowledge derived from several disciplines
like engineering, sociology, psychology, economics, anthropology, etc. The vast body of knowledge in management draws heavily upon other fields of study.
(vi) Management is a continuous Process: Management is a dynamic and an on-going process. The cycle of management continues to operate so long as there is organised action for the achievement of group goals.
(vii) Management is Intangible: Management is an unseen or invisible force. It cannot be seen but its presence can be felt everywhere in the form of results. However, the managers who perform the
functions of management are very much tangible and visible.
(viii) Management is an Art as well as Science: It contains a systematic body of theoretical knowledge and it also involves the practical application of such knowledge. Management is also a discipline involving specialised training and an ethical code arising out of its social obligations.
Case Studies on Nature or Characteristics of Management
Josh Enterprises decides to have a meeting of all the key employees of different departments in the organisation. The main motive is to tell the employees to keep the target of 20% increase in sales as the main objective when they work throughout the year. The meeting is full of ideas regarding the employees and processes involved. Various plans are made to harness the potential of the employees and streamline the processes. However with the passage of a few days the external business environment checks the capability of the organisation to adapt to the situations. The company successfully comes out at the end of the year with flying colours.
What are the various characteristics of management you can find highlighted here? Also identify the lines in which these characteristics have been highlighted.
The various characteristics of management involved here are:
1. Goal Oriented. The main motive is to tell the employees to keep the target of 20% increase in sales as the main objective when they work throughout the year.
2. Multidimensional. Various plans are made to harness the potential of the employees and streamline the processes. Employees—People, and Streamline the process—Operations.
3. Dynamic. However with the passage of a few days the external business environment checks the capability of the organisation to adapt to the situations.